Statue of Liberty arrives in New York Harbor
Finally completed in Paris in the summer of 1884, the statue, a robed female figure with an uplifted arm holding a torch, reached its new home on Bedloe’s Island in New York Harbor (between New York City and Hudson County, New Jersey) on June 17, 1885. After being reassembled, the 450,000-pound statue was officially dedicated on October 28, 1886, by President Cleveland, who said, “We will not forget that Liberty has here made her home; nor shall her chosen altar be neglected.” Standing more than 305 feet from the foundation of its pedestal to the top of its torch, the statue, dubbed “Liberty Enlightening the World” by Bartholdi, was taller than any structure in New York City at the time. The statue was originally copper-colored, but over the years it underwent a natural color-change process called patination that produced its current greenish-blue hue.
In 1892, Ellis Island, located near Bedloe’s Island (which in 1956 was renamed Liberty Island), opened as America’s chief immigration station, and for the next 62 years Lady Liberty, as the statue is nicknamed, stood watch over the more than 12 million immigrants who sailed into New York Harbor. In 1903, a plaque inscribed with a sonnet titled “The New Colossus” by American poet Emma Lazarus, written 20 years earlier for a pedestal fundraiser, was placed on an interior wall of the pedestal. Lazarus’ now-famous words, which include “Give me your tired, your poor/Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,” became symbolic of America’s vision of itself as a land of opportunity for immigrants.
Some 60 years after President Calvin Coolidge designated the statue a national monument in 1924, it underwent a multi-million-dollar restoration (which included a new torch and gold leaf-covered flame) and was rededicated by President Ronald Reagan on July 4, 1986, in a lavish celebration. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the statue was closed; its base, pedestal and observation deck re-opened in 2004, while its crown re-opened to the public on July 4, 2009. (For safety reasons, the torch has been closed to visitors since 1916, after an incident called the Black Tom explosions in which munitions-laden barges and railroad cars on the Jersey City, New Jersey, waterfront were blown up by German agents, causing damage to the nearby statue.)
Today, the Statue of Liberty is one of America’s most famous landmarks. Over the years, it has been the site of political rallies and protests (from suffragettes to anti-war activists), has been featured in numerous movies and countless photographs, and has received millions of visitors from around the globe. Source
Hurdles to Citizenship on Ellis Island
The road to America passed through Ellis Island, but there were a few hurdles to clear before passage was granted. In addition to a medical exam, there was a bit of a pop quiz. Could you pass the test? View here
The Ellis Island Medical Inspection
Upon arrival at Ellis Island, potential immigrants had to undergo medical screening. Most passed, but some didn’t. Find out what happened to those who were not in the best of health.
The Ellis Island Hospital
The south side of Ellis Island featured a public health hospital where about 10 percent of immigrants would have to go for further medical inspection. The Ellis Island hospital was also the birthplace of 355 babies. View here
Deconstructing History: Statue of Liberty
How many steps are there to the crown of the Statue of Liberty? Find out that and other facts and figures about America’s most recognizable symbol of freedom. View here
The Dark Underbelly of Ellis Island
The spirit of Ellis Island is captured in Stephen Wilkes’ book of photographs entitled “Ghosts of Freedom.” Wilkes spent over five years photographing Ellis Island, where both of his grandparents came to America. View here
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